PALOCH, South Sudan (AP) — The oil business in South Sudan has left a panorama pocked with tons of of open…

PALOCH, South Sudan (AP) — The oil business in South Sudan has left a panorama pocked with tons of of open waste pits, the water and soil contaminated with poisonous chemical substances and heavy metals together with mercury, manganese, and arsenic, in line with 4 environmental experiences obtained by The Related Press.

The experiences additionally comprise accounts of “alarming” start defects, miscarriages and different well being issues amongst residents of the area and troopers who’ve been stationed there. Residents additionally describe ladies unable to get pregnant.

Abui Mou Kueth’s toddler son, Ping, was born with six fingers on each arms, one stunted leg, a deformed foot and kidney swelling.

“I was shocked the first time I saw the baby,” she mentioned, cradling him in her arms.

She mentioned he was not in a position to breastfeed and wanted particular formulation. “I am worried about his future.”

The AP obtained the experiences and supporting paperwork from folks with shut data of the oil operations, certainly one of whom works within the business. The experiences have by no means been launched publicly.

The experiences, which date way back to 2013, have been introduced to the oil corporations and South Sudan’s ministry of petroleum however subsequently buried, in line with 4 folks with shut data of the oil operations and the paperwork. All spoke on situation of anonymity for worry of their security.

“South Sudan is running one of the dirtiest and poorest managed oil operations on the planet,” mentioned Egbert Wesselink, the previous head of a European coalition of greater than 50 non-profit organizations targeted on the impacts of the nation’s oil sector. He labored on the oil fields in South Sudan earlier than the nation gained independence in 2011, and now works with PAX, a Dutch-based human rights group.

“I don’t think there’s a single major industrial operation on earth that’s getting away with this,” he mentioned.

There’s been no clear hyperlink established between the air pollution and the well being issues.

However group leaders and lawmakers within the oil-rich areas in Higher Nile and Unity states — within the northeast and north of the nation bordering Ethiopia and Sudan — accuse South Sudan’s authorities and the 2 important oil consortiums, the Chinese language-led Dar Petroleum Working Co. and the Better Pioneer Working Co., of neglecting the difficulty and attempting to silence those that have tried to show the issue.

An AP reporter wanting into the air pollution and well being points was detained and questioned by authorities officers and authorities safety forces engaged on behalf of the oil corporations.

Neither firm responded to a number of requests for touch upon the experiences, and didn’t reply detailed questions despatched by e-mail and textual content message from the AP.

The experiences present that the federal government and the oil corporations have been conscious for years that contamination from drilling could possibly be inflicting extreme well being issues within the native inhabitants. However little has been carried out, native residents say, to wash up the mess. Guarantees by the federal government and the oil corporations to sort out the air pollution have repeatedly been damaged, they are saying.

“People are dying of unknown diseases,” mentioned Simon Ngor, a pastor with a church in Melut, a small village within the oil-rich space of Higher Nile state. “The oil company says they’re working on it but I don’t think they actually are.”

The environmental and well being issues are significantly damaging in South Sudan, a rustic that was solely established 9 years in the past and shortly after was torn aside by civil conflict and famine. It’s among the many poorest nations on the earth and will depend on its oil business to outlive.


The oil-rich space round Paloch, a metropolis in Higher Nile state, is dotted with uncovered swimming pools of poisonous water. A chemical junkyard in Gumry city, about 45 minutes from Paloch, was strewn with overflowing containers of black sludge that seeped into the bottom and have been surrounded by poisonous waste when an AP reporter visited in September 2018.

The air contained in the yard, which was unsecured and simple to enter, smelled overwhelmingly of chemical substances. Rows of stacked transport containers lined the interior perimeter of the yard, some have been left open exposing baggage of what gave the impression to be chemical substances. Many containers had labels stipulating there have been hazardous toxins inside. Trash was heaped in numerous corners of the plot.

The junkyard caught fireplace in Could and has but to be cleaned up, in line with a resident who visited in September and spoke on situation of anonymity for worry of their security.

The AP interviewed greater than two dozen folks in Paloch and the encompassing areas, and residents reported alarming well being issues that echoed these discovered within the buried experiences: infants with start defects, miscarriages and folks dying of unexplained sicknesses.

Dr. Bar Alony Wol, the county well being division director, pulled out his cellphone in his small one-room workplace in Melut and pointed to a photograph of a child lady born in September 2018 along with her intestines exterior of her physique. A couple of years in the past, he mentioned, he noticed a child born with no head.

“We’re losing children,” mentioned Nyaweir Ayik Monyuak, chairman of the Ladies’s Affiliation in Melut. The 43-year-old misplaced two kids of her personal between 2008 and 2011.

She and a dozen different ladies have been crowded on a tattered L-shaped couch in a dimly lit shed that serves as a gathering place in Melut. One after the other, the ladies took turns telling their harrowing tales.

Six had misplaced infants within the final 10 years. And all of them knew somebody who had given start to a toddler with deformities, had struggled to conceive or had miscarriages.

When a few of the shyer ladies have been hesitant to talk up, the extra vocal ones inspired them to share their experiences.

Ajok Ayel mentioned she misplaced a toddler in 2010 and hasn’t been in a position to get pregnant since.

“I’d like to leave if possible,” mentioned Jessica Uma, 34, who mentioned she had two miscarriages in 2012 and 2013 and used to get physique rashes when showering.

When docs eliminated Ngor Maluol’s useless daughter after she miscarried in 2018, the newborn’s head was concave and appeared as if she’d been hit, she mentioned.

Many ladies can’t even get pregnant, Monyuak mentioned.

Most of the residents mentioned the well being issues received worse after folks began ingesting water from white containers that started showing a number of years in the past in markets and alongside roadsides.

The identical containers have been strewn in regards to the Dar Petroleum chemical junkyard, with labels saying they contained a chemical demulsifier known as Phasetreat, utilized by the oil firm throughout drilling to separate crude oil from water.

The containers, which have been additionally talked about within the 2013 report, had hazardous substance warning labels. The chemical substances are presupposed to be “taken to a suitable and authorized waste disposal site,” in line with a spokesperson for Clariant, one of many world’s main specialty chemical corporations and supplier of Phasetreat.

“Under no circumstances should these empty containers be used by people for any reason, in particular for holding drinking water,” mentioned Rick Steiner, an oil air pollution adviser in Alaska who consults for governments, support teams and the United Nations on oil spills.

It’s unclear how the empty containers have been taken from Dar Petroleum’s safe compound. It took at the very least two years for the corporate to cease folks from utilizing them, native residents say.

“The oil company knew what was going on. There is no way the white containers could have left their yard without the staff in charge knowing. But they’ll never take responsibility for it,” mentioned Ramadan Chan Liol, chairman of the Padang Group Union. The group represents folks residing across the oil areas in Unity and Higher Nile states and acts as a liaison with the oil firm.


The 4 surveys bear out what AP discovered on the bottom, and present that the federal government and oil corporations are conscious of the air pollution and well being issues. However the individuals who offered the experiences to AP mentioned they have been purposely buried.

The earliest survey, from 2013, was led by then-Minister of Petroleum, Mining & Business, Stephen Dhieu Dau, with help from the Ministry of Well being.

A gaggle of 10 South Sudanese researchers, together with an infectious illness professional, an epidemiologist, a number of public well being specialists and an environmentalist, toured the oil fields in Higher Nile and Unity states. They discovered that native residents have been complaining of elevated miscarriages, stillbirths and incidents of “malformed newborn babies” that didn’t survive. The report, full with photographs, documented “alarming oil spillage” round a few of the amenities and famous many individuals had drowned within the open ponds created by the oil corporations.

In 2016, the identical two authorities ministries in addition to the atmosphere ministry despatched a workforce to Paloch to check why troopers stationed there have been falling ailing.

Soil and water samples from the realm, and organic samples from the troopers have been analyzed on the Nationwide Well being Laboratory Service in South Africa. They discovered mercury ranges within the water have been seven instances what’s permissible beneath U.S. Environmental Safety Company requirements, and manganese concentrations have been 10 instances increased than EPA permits, in line with a abstract of the research obtained by the AP. The chemical substances have been additionally discovered within the soil and in urine samples from a few of the troopers.

“These results are clearly indicating that heavy metals and petrochemicals have contaminated the area,” the abstract acknowledged, and it advisable extra research to see if the air pollution is linked with the well being issues.

In July 2018, Better Pioneer — which is comprised of the state-owned China Nationwide Petroleum Corp., the Malaysian state-owned Petronas in addition to South Sudanese and Indian drillers — commissioned a research by EnviroCare, a South Sudanese waste administration firm, to find out the state of some oil operations in Unity state that had been deserted throughout the nation’s civil conflict.

The corporate didn’t do any chemical testing however did discover vital oil spillage and water air pollution on the waste therapy facility. It mentioned that oil manufacturing was prone to have induced public well being, security and safety hazards, accidents and unintentional deaths, and land and water contamination.

One commissioner is quoted saying “some children were born with missing body parts.”

The newest research, from November 2018, was commissioned by Dar Petroleum to evaluate the chemical contamination in its oil fields and the encompassing areas.

Researchers took 146 samples of soil, fluids and unidentifiable chemical substances and located “extremely high” ranges of hydrocarbons — chemical substances reminiscent of benzene that make up oil and pure fuel and may trigger critical well being results. It additionally documented 650 waste pits stuffed with water contaminated with arsenic and lead, and hundreds of thousands of liters of water contaminated with drilling chemical substances sitting in ponds. The report confirmed at the very least some waste pit liners had been compromised and that flooding has allowed some chemical substances to seep out of the oil area areas.

The report advisable a five-year clean-up that may price about $58 million. South Sudan expects its oil business to generate $99 million in income every month from July 2019 to June 2020, in line with the nationwide price range.

However so far no clean-up has been carried out, residents say.


There isn’t any definitive proof that the air pollution or the chemical containers induced the start defects and different well being issues that residents round Paloch are complaining of.

South Sudan’s crippling five-year civil conflict that killed nearly 400,000 folks and displaced hundreds of thousands has created a dire humanitarian disaster, plunging pockets of the nation into famine. Roughly 7 million persons are reliant on support and greater than 5.5 million folks may go hungry by early this 12 months, in line with a press release by the U.N. in December. Years of combating have impeded folks’s entry to medical care.

Publicity to poisonous chemical substances reminiscent of lead, arsenic, manganese and benzene could cause quite a lot of well being issues together with most cancers, respiratory issues, impotence and stillbirths, in line with the World Well being Group.

South Sudan has the seventh highest price of pollution-related deaths on the earth, in line with the World Alliance on Well being and Air pollution, a company of nationwide atmosphere ministries, worldwide improvement organizations and NGOs.

Two units of information seen by the AP, one from an area advocacy group targeted on the atmosphere and one other by the well being ministry, famous a rise in start deformities and untimely deliveries in Unity state between 2015 and 2017.

Start deformities across the oil fields in Ruweng state (previously a part of Unity state), nearly tripled between 2015 and 2017, from 19% to 54%, in line with an environmental research by the native advocacy group. The group requested to not be recognized as a result of it was nonetheless gathering info for the report, which has not but been revealed as a result of the analysis is ongoing.

Moreover, an inside letter from the ministry of well being in Ruweng state that was supposed for South Sudan’s nationwide well being minister in 2018 documented a virtually threefold improve in untimely deliveries between 2015 and 2017, from 41 instances to 118. The letter notes that the information have been restricted to hospital deliveries and excluded infants delivered at dwelling.

The letter additionally notes that earlier than oil manufacturing within the area, in 1999, “there were no alarming reports of women giving birth to deformed babies, experiencing premature birth(s) amongst other environmental related diseases.”

Steiner, the American oil air pollution adviser, mentioned there’s substantial medicalliterature linking hydrocarbon publicity with start defects and that it could actually fairly be concluded that petroleum publicity could possibly be a contributing explanation for the start defects within the area.

“The pollution is a public health and environmental emergency,” he mentioned.

After the 2018 report on Higher Nile was introduced to the federal government, officers acknowledged the issue, calling it a “significant risk to the people living within the vicinity of the oil fields and the surrounding environment,” and instructed Dar Petroleum to maneuver forward with the proposed clean-up, in line with a December 2018 letter from the oil ministry seen by the AP.

However Dar Petroleum — a consortium that features China Nationwide Petroleum and Sinopec, one other state-owned Chinese language firm, together with corporations in Malaysia and Egypt and South Sudan’s state owned oil firm __ by no means acted, in line with two folks with shut data of the oil operations within the space who didn’t need to be named for worry of their security.

AP known as China Nationwide Petroleum Corp. and Sinopec a number of instances and despatched detailed questions by e-mail and fax, however neither firm responded. The AP additionally reached out to Petronas, which didn’t reply to requests for remark.

South Sudan’s 2012 Petroleum Act says anybody working within the oil business should adjust to finest worldwide practices on well being and security.

President Salva Kiir acknowledged in a press release in January that there’s a air pollution drawback within the oilfields and surrounding areas, and mentioned he desires to carry correct environmental requirements to the nation’s oil exploration operations.

The federal government in January requested for proposals from corporations to carry out an “environmental audit” that can consider clear up the present air pollution and put in place finest practices for future oil exploration.


Residents, nevertheless, are skeptical, saying the federal government and oil corporations have talked about cleansing up the air pollution earlier than.

In July 2018, after native residents complained in regards to the air pollution, Dar Petroleum despatched a delegation of native leaders and authorities officers to an environmental lab in Uganda. The go to was organized by EnviroCare and EnviroServ, a waste administration firm primarily based in South Africa with a department in Uganda, to debate cleansing up the oil fields, mentioned Yuahanna Ayuel, the youth chairman in Melut.

However after the journey, residents say, the oil firm mentioned the clean-up was too costly.

“I’m angry,” Ayuel mentioned. “Our environment is polluted. It’s a problem and it’s getting worse.”

In February, Phillips Anyang Ngong, a human rights lawyer, sued South Sudan’s Ministry of Petroleum, Better Pioneer Working Firm and Nile Petroleum — the nation’s state owned oil firm, claiming the oil air pollution induced well being issues and lack of life and demanding $500 million for victims. It’s the primary human rights lawsuit as a consequence of oil air pollution filed within the nation, he mentioned.

“Companies are violating the law and the government is not intervening,” he mentioned. “It’s a crisis that needs immediate attention now.”

However the authorities doesn’t look like in a rush.

South Sudan’s petroleum minister, Awow Daniel Chuang, mentioned till there’s scientific proof tying well being issues to grease air pollution, no conclusions must be drawn.

“Only speculations are being made until scientific evidences are out to see the level of damages created by oil operations. Obviously there shouldn’t be conclusions with evidences connected to deformation,” he mentioned.

Well being consultants who’ve tackled oil air pollution in comparable contexts say corporations typically attempt to disguise any connection between air pollution and well being issues.

“Polluters try as much as possible not to let connections be drawn from pollution to health issues, they try to connect it to something else, like genetics. This is a known tactic,” mentioned Nnimmo Bassey, government director for well being on the Well being of Mom Earth Basis, a not-for-profit environmental group primarily based in Nigeria.

Bassey’s work focuses on the Niger Delta, the place a 2011 U.N. atmosphere report discovered air pollution from over 50 years of oil operations in Ogoniland, Nigeria, penetrated additional and deeper than folks realized, inflicting grave well being and environmental dangers.

“They do it in South Sudan, in Nigeria, everywhere,” he mentioned.

That’s what child Ping’s father, Cornelious Mayak Geer, believes is occurring to his household.

In July 2019, the Better Pioneer Working Firm flew the household to Nairobi, Kenya, for what they thought can be medical therapy for Ping. Geer says the corporate advised him that they’d first do exams to find out if Ping’s deformities have been tied to grease air pollution. In the event that they discovered a hyperlink, they’d pay for therapy, Geer says the corporate officers advised him.

Medical doctors on the Aga Khan Hospital in Nairobi advised Geer that the newborn wanted surgical procedure, in line with Geer, however Better Pioneer refused to pay. Geer says he pushed for medical exams to find out whether or not Ping’s issues have been linked to grease air pollution, however the docs in Nairobi mentioned they couldn’t do such exams.

Geer refused to surrender, and in January, Better Pioneer flew them to Berlin, the place the entire household underwent 10 days of exams on their blood and hair and have been despatched dwelling. The infant obtained no medical care.

Geer mentioned the corporate advised him the kid’s issues have been genetic and never brought on by oil air pollution. However they by no means shared any check outcomes with him.

“Results for the child will not come, they’re still playing games,” he mentioned.

Geer is dropping hope.

“The baby still cries day and night because of the pain and not feeling well,” he mentioned. “They’re just buying time until the baby dies.”

Nyawiir Adoup, a 37-year-old Paloch resident whose house is a brief drive from an open waste pit, had an identical expertise. In 2013, she miscarried one child after which a second child was born useless with no nostril or eyes. Dar Petroleum introduced her and her husband first to Kenya after which to Germany for exams.

They spent greater than a month in Germany in 2014, in line with Adoup’s husband, Deng Awaj Awol. However they’ve by no means obtained outcomes.

“We weren’t told what was happening and when we came back to Juba I asked for the results and they refused,” Awol mentioned.

In 2015, Adoup then gave start to a second stillborn youngster, this one born with a gaping gap in its abdomen.

“You could see through,” she mentioned. “I was crying.”

The AP obtained a duplicate of the couple’s medical report from Germany, which was dated Oct. 20, 2014. It was addressed to the well being security and atmosphere division at Dar Petroleum and submitted by the physician who accompanied the household. It confirmed they noticed specialists in occupational drugs, nuclear drugs, gynecology and human genetics, in line with the report.

Dr. Robert Middleberg, a forensic toxicologist on the NMS Labs in Horsham, Pennsylvania, reviewed the information and mentioned they confirmed the couple have been uncovered to poisonous chemical substances, a few of that are related to inducing abortion. However, he mentioned, the analyses have been lacking essential particulars, together with any numbers within the toxicology experiences that he reviewed.

“Sometimes I still feel sick, my body isn’t normal,” mentioned Adoup. “Sometimes I have nightmares of having another (child) like the previous ones.”

Environmental consultants say there’s little incentive for multinational corporations to do something as a result of it’s simple to get away with issues in impoverished nations like South Sudan.

That’s partially as a result of the nation is so dependent upon its oil sector to outlive.

Oil accounts for nearly all of the nation’s exports and greater than 40% of its gross home product, in line with the World Financial institution. As South Sudan emerges from years of combating, it’s attempting to revive its economic system by increasing the business. In October, the ministry of petroleum introduced plans to open 14 oil blocks this 12 months for exploration.

“No one’s really watching. The government is neither willing nor able to monitor and enforce its own environmental laws,” mentioned Luke Patey, senior researcher finding out China’s oil investments in Africa on the Danish Institute for Worldwide Research.

He mentioned the result’s “a vicious cycle of negligence.”


Related Press researcher Chen Si contributed to this story.


Contact AP’s international investigative workforce at [email protected]

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